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Culture and Explosion, now appearing in English for the very first time, is the final book written by the legendary semiotician Juri Lotman. Originally published in Russian in 1992, a year before Lotman's death, the volume puts forth a fundamental theory: the semiotics of culture. Proceeding from a model of communication, Lotman extends the work of the renowned Tartu-Moscow school that he founded, showing not only how culture can be observed and described, but also how it can be governed and guided. In fact, as Lotman demonstrates with copious examples, the modelling system of culture has an immeasurably strong influence on the way that humans experience "e;reality"e;. As usual, Lotman's erudition is brought to bear on the theory of culture, and the book comprises a host of well-chosen illustrations from history, literature, art and right across the humanities. The book is of interest to students and researchers in semiotics, cultural/literary studies and Russian studies, as well as anyone with an interest in understanding contemporary intellectual life.
The use of English as a global lingua franca has given rise to new challenges and approaches in our understanding of language and communication. One area where ELF (English as a lingua franca) studies, both from an empirical and theoretical orientation, have the potential for significant developments is in our understanding of the relationships between language, culture and identity. ELF challenges traditional assumptions concerning the purposed 'inexorable' link between a language and a culture. Due to the multitude of users and contexts of ELF communication the supposed language, culture and identity correlation, often conceived at the national level, appears simplistic and naive. However, it is equally naive to assume that ELF is a culturally and identity neutral form of communication. All communication involves participants, purposes, contexts and histories, none of which are 'neutral'. Thus, we need new approaches to understanding the relationship between language, culture and identity which are able to account for the multifarious and dynamic nature of ELF communication.
Establishing ethical and privacy protection aspects in scientific research, especially in medical research, has a long history. Medical data are usually more sensible than other personal data and require therefore an even higher degree of protection than other personal data. In recent research projects genetic evaluations become more and more important and trigger thereby new and continuing activities in the context of data protection. Genetic data as a subset of medical data are the most sensible category of personal data and require therefore the highest degree of data protection.The book provides a systematic and itemized approach to data protection in clinical research including the handling of genetic material, genetic samples as well as derived genetic data and the subsequent secure storage of them. The set up of different kinds of clinical trials having in addition a genetic part, the concept of a genetic informed consent as well as collection schemes of samples are described in detail. Technical requirements and aspects of data protection including pseudonymization and anonymization procedures taking into account ethics committees requirements as well as the underlying legal framework are also presented.Without any exception, all principles and methods presented are best practices, repeatedly applied in different clinical environments and by no means theoretical considerations.