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Dyslexia was first described by two English physicians, Kerr and Morgan, in 1896. Interestingly, the structural cortical hypothesis initially proposed by Morgan is still held in wide esteem, albeit in slightly modified forms. Despite 80 years of escalating research efforts and mounds of correspond- ing statistics, there continues to exist a perplexing diagnostic-therapeutic medical void and riddle in which dyslexics can neither be scientifically distinguished from other slow learners nor medically treated; and patho- gnomonic clinical signs remain as elusive as a suitable neurophysiologic conceptualization. This book is the outcome of a IS-year-Iong search for a solution to the riddle characterizing dyslexia. All of my initial attempts at re-exploring the safe old (cortical, psychogenic, etc.) dyslexic paths and ideas led nowhere. Something new was needed. Children and adults were suffering. Educators and parents were bewildered. Answers were needed. The government man- dated equal education for the learning disabled. Clinicians were waiting. And traditionalists remained fixated to the theoretical past and blind to the clinical dyslexic reality.
During the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in statistical time series analysis. The aim of this book is to present a survey of one of the most active areas in this field: the identification of autoregressive moving-average models, i.e., determining their orders. Readers are assumed to have already taken one course on time series analysis as might be offered in a graduate course, but otherwise this account is self-contained. The main topics covered include: Box-Jenkins' method, inverse autocorrelation functions, penalty function identification such as AIC, BIC techniques and Hannan and Quinn's method, instrumental regression, and a range of pattern identification methods. Rather than cover all the methods in detail, the emphasis is on exploring the fundamental ideas underlying them. Extensive references are given to the research literature and as a result, all those engaged in research in this subject will find this an invaluable aid to their work.
As an introductory textbook on the analysis of variance or a reference for the researcher, this text stresses applications rather than theory, but gives enough theory to enable the reader to apply the methods intelligently rather than mechanically. Comprehensive, and covering the important techniques in the field, including new methods of post hoc testing. The relationships between different research designs are emphasized, and these relationships are exploited to develop general principles which are generalized to the analyses of a large number of seemingly differentdesigns. Primarily for graduate students in any field where statistics are used.
For some time now, the study of cognitive development has been far and away the most active discipline within developmental psychology. Although there would be much disagreement as to the exact proportion of papers published in develop- mental journals that could be considered cognitive, 5090 seems like a conservative estimate. Hence, a series of scholarly books devoted to work in cognitive devel- opment is especially appropriate at this time. The Springer Series in Cognitive Development contains two basic types of books, namely, edited collections of original chapters by several authors, and original volumes written by one author or a small group of authors. The flagship for the Springer Series is a serial publication of the "e;advances"e; type, carrying the subtitle Progress in Cognitive Development Research. Each volume in the Progress sequence is strongly thematic, in that it is limited to some well-defined domain of cognitive- developmental research (e.g., logical and mathematical development, development of learning). All Progress volumes will be edited collections. Editors of such collections, upon consultation with the Series Editor, may elect to have their books published either as contributions to the Progress sequence or as separate volumes. All books written by one author or a small group of authors are being published as separate volumes within the series.
There are a great deal of books on introductory analysis in print today, many written by mathematicians of the first rank. The publication of another such book therefore warrants a defense. I have taught analysis for many years and have used a variety of texts during this time. These books were of excellent quality mathematically but did not satisfy the needs of the students I was teaching. They were written for mathematicians but not for those who were first aspiring to attain that status. The desire to fill this gap gave rise to the writing of this book. This book is intended to serve as a text for an introductory course in analysis. Its readers will most likely be mathematics, science, or engineering majors undertaking the last quarter of their undergraduate education. The aim of a first course in analysis is to provide the student with a sound foundation for analysis, to familiarize him with the kind of careful thinking used in advanced mathematics, and to provide him with tools for further work in it. The typical student we are dealing with has completed a three-semester calculus course and possibly an introductory course in differential equations. He may even have been exposed to a semester or two of modern algebra. All this time his training has most likely been intuitive with heuristics taking the place of proof. This may have been appropriate for that stage of his development.
This work marks a stage in the evolution of a scientific and technical field which has been developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) over several decades. Many members of the staff of the CEA have won re- nown in this field, and their work has brought it to the high degree of excel- lence for which it is internationally recognized today. These scientists had to consider every aspect of the field, as it concerned: modeling, which has recourse to fluid thermodynamics, molecular phys- ics, and chemistry; numerical evaluation, which relies on mathematical analysis and data processing; and experiments in the firing area, which require specific stress generators and instrumentation. Whilst this book is a testament to the activity and success of staff of the CEA, it also reviews a number ofthe advances made in the discipline. How- ever, it is not intended to be an exhaustive account of those advances; it is assumed that the reader can, if desired, consult the standard monographs, and more recent, more specialized works (notably W.C. Davis and W. Fickett, and C.L. Mader). The history of the discipline is interesting in itself, and also as an illustra- tion of the causes which lead to progress in a coherent body of scientific work. I should like to make some comments on this progress, of which there is a fascinating summary in the introduction, and which will figure largely throughout the work.
This book is based on a 1981 German language edition published by Springer- Verlag, Vienna, under the title Bioprozesstechnik. Philip Manor has done the translation, for which I am deeply grateful. This book differs from the German edition in many ways besides language. It is substantially enlargened and updated, and examples of computer simula- tions have been added together with other appendices to make the work both more comprehensive and more practical. This book is the result of over 15 years of experience in teaching and research. It stems from lectures that I began in 1970 at the Technical University of Graz, Austria, and continued at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada, 1980; at the Free University of Brussels, 1981; at Chalmers Technical University in G6teborg, Sweden; at the Academy of Sciences in lena, East Germany; at the "e;Haus der Technik"e; in Essen, West Germany, 1982; at the Academy of Science in Sofia, Bulgaria; and at the Technical University of Delft, Netherlands, 1986. The main goals of this book are, first, to bridge the gap that always exists between basic principles and applied engineering practice, second, to enhance the integration between biological and physical phenomena, and, third, to contribute to the internal development of the field of biotechnology by describing the process-oriented field of bioprocess technology.
In the preface to Volume One I promised a second volume which would contain the theory of linear mappings and special classes of spaces im- portant in analysis. It took me nearly twenty years to fulfill this promise, at least to some extent. To the six chapters of Volume One I added two new chapters, one on linear mappings and duality (Chapter Seven), the second on spaces of linear mappings (Chapter Eight). A glance at the Contents and the short introductions to the two new chapters will give a fair impression of the material included in this volume. I regret that I had to give up my intention to write a third chapter on nuclear spaces. It seemed impossible to include the recent deep results in this field without creating a great further delay. A substantial part of this book grew out of lectures I held at the Mathematics Department of the University of Maryland* during the academic years 1963-1964, 1967-1968, and 1971-1972. I would like to express my gratitude to my colleagues J. BRACE, S. GOLDBERG, J. HORVATH, and G. MALTESE for many stimulating and helpful discussions during these years. I am particularly indebted to H. JARCHOW (Ziirich) and D. KEIM (Frankfurt) for many suggestions and corrections. Both have read the whole manuscript. N. ADASCH (Frankfurt), V. EBERHARDT (Miinchen), H. MEISE (Diisseldorf), and R. HOLLSTEIN (Paderborn) helped with important observations.
The widening interest in marine biology has led to the establishment of an increasing number of school and undergraduate courses in the subject. There are many books on various aspects of marine biology which students can read with advantage, but few that are suitable as introductory reading at the commencement of studies. This book has been compiled primarily as an aid for zoology students at the start of a special course on marine biology. The text is an introduction to the author's annual course for undergraduates. The aim has been a concise presentation of information and ideas over the general field of marine ecology, with guidance on the selection of more advanced reading. The sources of further information given at the end of each chapter have been chosen as far as possible from books and journals to which students should have reasonably easy access. These lists provide a selection of additional reading which starts at an elementary level and be- comes more advanced as the course proceeds. Students entering the author's course are usually in their third under- graduate year, and a general knowledge of the phyla is therefore assumed.
"e;Depression runs in families."e; Above all, the goal of thisbook is to come to some conclusions about the meaning ofthat simple assertion, which has a far from simple ex-planation of meaning. This book is designed to address someof the gaps in previous research on depressive disorders inthe family context: the sheer numbers of people withaffective disorders marks them as our most commonpsychiatric problem.
TO THE FIRST RUSSIAN EDITION It was a very difficult task to write a guide-book of a small size designed to contain the fundamental knowledge of mathema- tics which is most necessary to engineers and students of higher technical schools. In our tendency to the compactness and brevity of the exposition, we attempted, however, to produce a guide-book which would be easy to understand, convenient to use and as accurate as possible (as much as it is required in engineering). It should be pointed out that this book is neither a handbook nor a compendium, but a guide-book. Therefore it is not written as systematically as a handbook should be written. Hence the reader should not be surprised to find, for example, I'HOpital's rule in the section devoted to computation of limits which is a part of the chapter "e;Introduction to the analysis"e; placed before the concept of the derivative, or information about the Gamma function in the chapter "e;Algebra"e;-just after the concept of the factorial. There are many such "e;imperfections"e; in the book. Thus a reader who wants to acquire certain information is advised to use not only the table of contents but also the alpha- betical index inserted at the end of the book. If a problem mentioned in the text is explained in detail in another place of the book, then the corresponding page is indicated in a footnote.
This book is designed to meet the modern need for a better understanding of drug-receptor interaction as applied to the gathering and interpretation of dose-response data. It is an introduction suitable for any student who has had a first course in pharmacology. This book is an extension of the pharmacology course into one area of what is now known as molecular pharmacology. The material included is an outgrowth of courses that we have given in recent years to health-science students in several professional schools and universities. The area of drug-receptor theory, although just a part of molecular phar- macology, is already very broad. One major line of investigation is concerned with the chemical and structural nature of specific receptors and with efforts to isolate specific receptors. Another line of investigation is concerned with the kinetic theories of drug-receptor interaction, the effort there being to provide a general theory that is applicable to wide classes of drugs. We have chosen to deal with the latter. There are several reasons for our choice of topics. First, the information is very practical; that is, it permits one to use properly and consistently terms such as "e;efficacy,"e; "e;partial agonist,"e; "e;pure antagonist,"e; "e;potency,"e; "e;pA2'"e; etc., when describing drug action. Second, many students fail to appreciate the differences in and the limitations of the various theories, beginning with the classical theory of A. J. Clark, on up to the very recent allosteric theories.
It is a privilege for me to write a foreword for this unusual book. The book is not primarily a reference work although many of the ideas and proofs are explained more clearly here than in any other source that I know. Nor is this a text of the customary sort. It is rather a record of a particular course and Gordon Whyburn's special method of teaching it. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the course and the method is to relate my own personal experience with a forerunner of this same course in the academic year 1937-1938. At that time, the course was offered every other year with a following course in algebraic topology on alternate years. There were five of us enrolled, and on the average we knew less mathematics than is now routinely given in a junior course in analysis. Whyburn's purpose, as we learned, was to prepare us in minimal time for research in the areas in which he was inter- ested. His method was remarkable.
The Leo Baeck Institute, to whose late president this book is dedicated, has three branches, located in Jerusalem, London, and New York. Its chief aim is the collection of documents describing the history of Jews in German-speaking countries, the manifold aspects of the association of the two ethnic groups, over a period of about 150 years; that is, from the time of the Enlightenment until the rise to power of the Nazi regime. Twenty-three Year Books (1956-1978) so far and many additional vol- umes about special fields have been published by the institute. They offer an impressive documentation of the role Jews played in Germany, some of their great achievements, the difficulties they encountered in their struggle for equal rights, as well as its slow but seemingly success- ful progress. A wealth of interesting material describes the mutual stimu- lation of the creative forces of the two ethnic groups in a great variety of fields-literature, music, the performing arts, philosophy, humanities, the shaping of public opinion, economy, commerce, and industry. Since the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans, there have been only a few periods during which Jews played such an eminent role in the history of their host nation. As was forcefully emphasized by Gerson D.
This book was written expressly to serve as a textbook for a one- or two-semester introductory graduate course in functional analysis. Its (soon to be published) companion volume, Operators on Hilbert Space, is in- tended to be used as a textbook for a subsequent course in operator theory. In writing these books we have naturally been concerned with the level of preparation of the potential reader, and, roughly speaking, we suppose him to be familiar with the approximate equivalent of a one-semester course in each of the following areas: linear algebra, general topology, complex analysis, and measure theory. Experience has taught us, however, that such a sequence of courses inevitably fails to treat certain topics that are important in the study of functional analysis and operator theory. For example, tensor products are frequently not discussed in a first course in linear algebra. Likewise for the topics of convergence of nets and the Baire category theorem in a course in topology, and the connections between measure and topology in a course in measure theory. For this reason we have chosen to devote the first ten chapters of this volume (entitled Part I) to topics of a preliminary nature. In other words, Part I summarizes in considerable detail what a student should (and eventually must) know in order to study functional analysis and operator theory successfully.
This book is devoted to the mathematical analysis of models of economic dynamics and equilibria. These models form an important part of mathemati- cal economics. Models of economic dynamics describe the motion of an economy through time. The basic concept in the study of these models is that of a trajectory, i.e., a sequence of elements of the phase space that describe admissible (possible) development of the economy. From all trajectories, we select those that are"e; desirable,"e; i.e., optimal in terms of a certain criterion. The apparatus of point-set maps is the appropriate tool for the analysis of these models. The topological aspects of these maps (particularly, the Kakutani fixed-point theorem) are used to study equilibrium models as well as n-person games. To study dynamic models we use a special class of maps which, in this book, are called superlinear maps. The theory of superlinear point-set maps is, obviously, of interest in its own right. This theory is described in the first chapter. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to models of economic dynamics and present a detailed study of the properties of optimal trajectories. These properties are described in terms of theorems on characteristics (on the existence of dual prices) and turnpike theorems (theorems on asymptotic trajectories). In Chapter 5, we state and study a model of economic equilibrium. The basic idea is to establish a theorem about the existence of an equilibrium state for the Arrow-Debreu model and a certain generalization of it.
In this volume I attempt to present concisely the physical principles underlying the operation and performance characteristics of the class of semiconductor p-n-p-n switches known as thyristors. The semiconductor controlled rectifier (SCR), the triode AC switch (Triac) the gate turn-off switch (GTO), and the reverse conducting thyristor (RCT) are some of the most important devices belonging to this device family. This book is aimed both at semiconductor-device physicists, designers, and students and at those electronic circuit designers who wish to apply thyristors creatively without the limitation of con- sidering them as "e;black boxes,"e; described only by insufficiently understood electrical ratings. The book endeavors to present an up-to-date account of the progress made in understanding the operation, potentialities, and limitations of thyristors as switching circuit elements. It assumes some basic knowledge of transistor physics and stresses the phe- nomenological aspects of thyristor theory with the use of mathe- matics not going beyond calculus and differential equations. The first two chapters discuss basic thyristor operation theory. The sub- sequent chapters are devoted to the study of the static and dynamic properties of the SCR, the RCT, the GTO, and the triac; they in- clude discussions of forward voltage drops, maximum voltage- blocking capabilities, turn-on and turn-off transients, current and voltage rise rates, and desirable and undesirable triggering effects.
More and more biologists, chemists, pharmacologists, toxicologists, gov- ernmental agencies, and "e;food control"e; (regulatory) officials around the world are finding it increasingly difficult to keep abreast of the technical literature in the pesticide field; indeed, many libraries do not have even a small proportion of the journals and other sources that now regularly contain research, development, and application information about all aspects of modern chemical pest control. As a result, a very large number of requests has come to "e;Residue Reviews"e; to publish detailed digests of information on single pesticide chemicals so that the interested person in any part of the world could easily be brought up to date with all available important in- formation without having to search probably several hundred literature sources, many of them obscure or simply not available except in very large libraries. The service and convenience rendered the readership by such a series of volumes on major individual pesticide chemicals would therefore be considerable. Type and scope of coverage in this series of single-pesticide volumes will of course vary with available information. The coverage should be as com- plete as possible, however, to be of maximum value to all interested indi- viduals, industries, research institutions, and governmental agencies con- cerned with the continuing production of an adequately large yet safe food supply for the world. Among the topics bracketed for a single pesticide should ideally be: I. Introduction II.
The mastery of a variety of biomedical They avoided the self-destruction and dis- techniques has led our society to the solu- ease that can so readily follow the escalation tion of the problems in environmental con- of social disorder in an isolated colony. By trol imposed by space flight. By an unparal- following a "e;code of civility"e; that may be as leled social cooperative effort, man has much a part of man's biologic inheritance as launched himself successfully on the path of his speech, they established cultures in interplanetary exploration and space travel. which power was exercised with sufficient By a like synthesis of knowledge available to respect to establish a consensus. They fol- him, Stone Age man kept a foothold on tiny lowed revered cultural canons, using an Pacific atolls for the better part of a thousand accumulation of rational empiric data from years, despite obliterating hurricanes and social experience to modify and control the inherited biogrammar. This we often fail to limited resources. By combining empiric do. There is growing evidence that it is phys- navigational skills, such as the sighting of stars with intuitive feeling for ocean swells iologically possible for the left hemisphere of and other subtle cues, tiny populations were the brain, which deals with logic and lan- maintained in communication over vast dis- guage, to be cut off from the right hemi- tances.
Since the appearance of the treatise on "e;Schedules of Reinforcement"e; by Ferster and Skinner over two decades ago, the literature in behavior analysis, both experimental and applied, has been dominated by a range of studies dedi- cated to providing ever more systematic and refined accounts of these "e;mainsprings of behavior control. "e; For the most part, the analysis has been pursued in the best traditions of "e;scientific methodology"e; with careful atten- tion to the isolation of controlling variables in unitary form. Of late, relatively simple interaction effects have provided an important additional focus for more sophisticated analyses. It is clear, however, from even a cursory survey of the monumental research and conceptual analysis which is represented in this scholarly volume by Henton and Iversen that the surface ofthis complex "e;be- havioral interactions"e; domain has barely been scratched. The primary focus of this pioneering effort extends the competing response analysis across all experimental schedules, both classical and instrumental, as well as the interactions between the two. Appropriately, the analysis empha- sizes overt behavioral interactions, beginning with the simplest case of one operant and one respondent, and inevitably implicating more diverse and subtle interactions. As the analysis expands to include interactions between multiple recorded responses, increasingly more precise empirical specifications ofrecip- rocal interactions in response probabilities are revealed independently of con- ventional procedural labels (i. e. , operants, respondents, collaterals, adjunc- tives, etc. ) and traditional theoretical distinctions.
Worldwide concern in scientific, industrial, and governmental com- munities over traces of toxic chemicals in foodstuffs and in both abiotic and biotic environments has justified the present triumvirate of specialized publications in this field: comprehensive reviews, rapidly published progress reports, and archival documentations. These three publications are integrated and scheduled to provide in international communication the coherency essential for nonduplicative and current progress in a field as dynamic and complex as environmentaI contamination and toxicology. Until now there has been no journal or other publication series reserved exclusively for the diversified literature on "e;toxic"e; chemicals in our foods, our feeds, our geographical surroundings, our domestic animals, our wild- life, and ourselves. Around the world immense efforts and many talents have been mobilized to technical and other evaluations of natures, locales, magnitudes, fates, and toxicology of the persisting residues of these chemicals loosed upon the world. Among the sequelae of this broad new emphasis has been an inescapable need for an articulated set of authorita- tive publications where one could expect to find the latest important world literature produced by this emerging area of science together with documentation of pertinent ancillary legislation.
The idea of writing a textbook on urban surveying and mapping originated with the Commission on Cartography of the Pan American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH) because of the urgent need for planned and integrated surveying and mapping in urban communities of the American Hemisphere. It is obvious, however, that, with the exception of some European countries, the same situation exists in most cities of the world. The undersigned was asked to undertake the task. The task was not simple. The only available comprehensive text in the field 1 is Geodezja Miejska , which was published recently in Poland and reached the authors only after most of the present text was written. It is tailored to a very specific market and different requirements. Although it is an impressive book, it differs vastly from our own approach. Other reference texts are fragmentary or obsolete. During the last two decades, revolutionary changes have occurred in survey- ing and mapping technology which have had a profound effect on actual procedures. In addition, the traditional concepts of urban surveying and map- ping are undergoing rapid evolution. It is recognized that administration and planning require a great variety of continuously updated information which must be correlated with the actual physical fabric of the community, as de- termined by surveying and mapping. Modern urban surveying and mapping is therefore the foundation of the broad and dynamic information system that is indispensable in any rational municipal effort.
New textbooks at all levels of chemistry appear with great regularity. Some fields like basic biochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, and chemical thermodynamics are well represented by many excellent texts, and new or revised editions are published sufficiently often to keep up with progress in research. However, some areas of chemistry, especially many of those taught at the graduate level, suffer from a real lack of up-to-date textbooks. The most serious needs occur in fields that are rapidly changing. Textbooks in these subjects usually have to be written by scientists actually involved in the research which is advancing the field. It is not often easy to persuade such individuals to set time aside to help spread the knowledge they have accumulated. Our goal, in this series, is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive introductions to their fields. These should serve the needs of one semester or one quarter graduate courses in chemistry and biochemistry. In some cases the availability of texts in active research areas should help stimulate the creation of new courses.
This book was written as a text, although many may consider it a mono- graph. As a text it has been used several times in both the one-year graduate quantum-mechanics course and (in its shortened version) in a senior quantum mechanics course that I taught at the University of Texas at Austin. It is self-contained and does not require any prior knowledge of quantum mechanics. It also introduces the mathematical language of quantum mechanics, starting with the definitions, and attempts to teach this language by using it. Therefore, it can, in principle, be read without prior knowledge of the theory of linear operators and linear spaces, though some familiarity with linear algebra would be helpful. Prerequisites are knowledge of calculus and of vector algebra and analysis. Also used in a few places are some elementary facts of Fourier analysis and differential equations. Most physical examples are taken from the fields of atomic and molecular physics, as it is these fields that are best known to students at the stage when they learn quantum mechanics. This book may be considered a monograph because the presentation here is different from the usual treatment in many standard textbooks on quantum mechanics. It is not that a "e;different kind"e; of quantum mechanics is pre- sented here; this is conventional quantum mechanics ("e; Copenhagen inter- pretation "e;).
Since 1961 the author has taught a course in Cytogenetics at Montana State University. Undergraduate and graduate stu- dents of Biology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Animal and Range Science, Plant and Soil Science, Plant Pathology and Veterinary Science are enrolled. Therefore, the subject matter has been pre- sented in an integrated way to correlate it with these diverse disciplines. This book has been prepared as a text for this course. The most recent Cytogenetics text was published in 1972, and rapidly developing research in this field makes a new one urgently needed. This book includes many aspects of Cytogenetics and related fields and is written for the college student as well as for the researcher. It is recommended that the student should have taken preparatory courses in Principles of Genetics and Cytol- ogy. The content is more than is usually taught during one quar- ter of an academic year, thus allowing an instructor to choose what he or she would like to present to a class. This approach also allows the researcher to obtain a broad exposure to this field of biology. References are generously supplied to stimulate orig- inal reading on the subject and to give access to valuable sources. The detailed index is intended to be of special assistance to researchers.
The oceans cover about 72 percent of our planet (which is named for the remaining 28 percent). These oceans have fascinated and challenged the human race for centuries. In the past, the ocean had been used first as a source of food and later as a means of transportation. However, the oceans have recently become very important-they may offer a solution to many of our modern problems. For example, refuse from land is to be dumped into the ocean never to be seen again; fish and other biological resources are to be caught and used to meet the protein deficiency of the world; oil and gas from the continental shelf and perhaps deeper areas will eventually solve our energy problems. None ofthese examples is completely possible, and the at- source offood and later as a means of transportation. However, the oceans social, and ecological problems in the marine environment. Countries are al- ready planning how the oceans can be divided up, so that they will get their "e;fair share"e;. Economists, politicians, and others are producing almost daily, optimistic or pessimistic views (depending upon your own viewpoint) about the ocean and its resources. Equally loud reports come from environ- mentalists, conservationists, government sources, and oil companies con- cerning the pollution and potential destruction of the ocean.
Much of current programming practice is basically empirical and ad hoc in approach. Each problem is tackled without relation to those that have gone before; experiences are made and stored as a series of fragments. Now, under the pressure of events, this unsatisfactory state of affairs is coming to an end. Programming is becoming a technology, a theory known as structured programming is developing. The purpose of a theory is to categorise and explain existing practice, thus enabling it to be improved through the development of new and sharper techniques. The resulting experiences have then to be fed back into the theory so that the process of enrichment may continue. This dialectical relationship between theory and practice is essential to a healthy programming technology. The lack of such a relationship in the 1950s and 60s and the accompanying software crisis certainly confirm the converse of this proposition. My aim in writing this book has been to explain the current state of the theory of structured programming, so that it may be used to improve the reader's practice. The book deals with two facets of programming - how to design a program in terms of abstract data structures and how to represent the data structures on real and bounded computers. The separation between program design and data structure representation leads to more reliable and flexible programs.